# Welcome to Physics 123 (section 2)!

**Winter 2011**

**NOTE: Section 2 is for Physics majors and minors only, or (I suppose) for people who are seriously considering a major/minor. If you do not fall into that category, please sign up for Section 1.**

**Instructor: John S. Colton Email address: "john_" (including the underscore) plus "colton" at "byu dot edu" Office hours: MWF, 2-3 pm (right after class) in the Underground Lab study area Office: N335 ESC, available by appointment T.A./grader: Chris Mackprang TA's email address: "mackpack" + "314" (the first three digits of pi; not sure if that's just a coincidence) at "yahoo.com"TA's office hours: MWF, 4-5:30 pm in the Underground Lab study area**

## Announcements

- 22 Apr 2011 - Final exam graded, solutions posted below.
- 2 Feb 2011 - Lecture 13 "What is entropy" handout posted, link is in the Lecture Notes section below.
- 17 Dec 2010 - Barebones website set up. Updates will be posted here in the Announcements section as appropriate.

## Textbooks

- The main textbook for the class is
*Physics for Scientists and Engineers*, by Serway and Jewett (6^{th}, 7^{th}, or 8^{th}editions). You will need a textbook, or combination of textbooks, that covers chapters 14, 16-22, and 35-39. Inexpensive used versions are perfectly acceptable. - A small auxiliary textbook will be
*Physics phor Phynatics*, by Dallin Durfee (a faculty member here at BYU). This book contains supplementary material specific to this section of 123. It is a very inexpensive book, and Dr. Durfee does not receive any royalties.

## Syllabus and Course Packet

- Phys 123 section 2 syllabus.pdf - The syllabus will also be available in the bookstore for purchase, for $5-6. If you prefer, you can print out your own copy from the pdf file. (But if you do so, please don't use department printers unless you reimburse the department for the expense.)

## Lecture Notes

- Lecture 1 - intro, pressure
- Lecture 2 - Archimedes' Principle
- Lecture 3 - fluid motion
- Lecture 4 - thermal expansion, ideal gas law
- Lecture 5 - kinetic theory
- Lecture 6 - calorimetry
- Lecture 7 - heat transfer
- Lecture 8 - first law (this is the PowerPoint that I would have used) | Lecture 8 - Stokes (this is the PowerPoint that Dr Stokes actually used)
- Lecture 9 - molar specific heats
- Lecture 10 - engines
- Lecture 11 - refrigerators and Carnot
- Lecture 12 - entropy
- Lecture 13 - What is entropy? (lecture notes) | Lecture 13 handout - What is entropy? (This is the handout for the reading assignment.) (Last lecture for exam 1.)
- Lecture 14 - waves (start of lectures for exam 2)
- Lecture 15 - waves on a string
- Lecture 16 - complex numbers
- Lecture 17 - reflection, transmission, dispersion
- Lecture 18 - sound waves (with a little bit more dispersion discussion at the start of the lecture)
- Lecture 19 - Doppler, superposition
- Lecture 20 - standing waves, resonance
- Lecture 21 - beats, uncertainty
- Lecture 22 - Fourier 1 | Mathematica notebooks: square wave Fourier; testing cosine integrals
- Lecture 23 - Fourier 2
- Lecture 24 - music
- Lecture 25 - reflection, refraction, dispersion
- Lecture 26 - Huygen, TIR (Dr Hart substituting)
- Lecture 27 - polarization, Brewster
- Lecture 28 - images from mirrors
- Lecture 29 - images from lenses
- Lecture 30 - aberrations, camera, eye
- Lecture 31 - magnifier, telescope
- Lecture 32 - interference from slits (this lecture was given by Dr Peatross)
- Lecture 33 - more interference (this lecture was given by Dr Durfee)
- Lecture 34 - diffraction from wide slits
- Lecture 35 - resolving, gratings
- Lecture 36 - waves in 3D, optical devices
- Lecture 37 - intro to relativity
- Lecture 38 - special relativity
- Lecture 39 - Lorentz transformations 1
- Lecture 40 - Lorentz transformations 2
- Lecture 41 - E = mc
^{2} - Lecture 42 - Project Show & Tell

## Videos of Demos

Here are a lot of the demos I have done/likely will do in class this semester, posted here in case you have to miss a class. The videos were filmed in old Phys 123 and Phys 105 classes. Click on the demo title to get it to play in the movie window.

- lecture 1 - force vs pressure | collapsing can | Magdeburg hemispheres
- lecture 2 - bed of nails | reverse tug of war | Coke vs Diet Coke | aluminum foil sink or float | force from submerged weight
- lecture 3 - chimney effect | cards and wooden block | ball in funnel | floating ball | blowing on paper | link to Elder Nelson's 1997 general conference talk | Bernoulli red fluid
- lecture 4 - liquid bulb thermometer | pressure gauge thermometer | bimetallic strip | ring and ball | helium vs air balloon | LN volume expansion | LN balloon pop | rubber nail (we didn't do the last two, but they may be fun for you to watch)
- lecture 5 - lighter molecules go faster | fast molecules cause pressure
- lecture 6 - boiling water at 300K
- lecture 7 - failed attempted at boiling water in a paper cup-sorry, no video | here's a convection demo from a previous semester: convection current
- lecture 9 - alcohol rocket (aka constant volume change) | freeze spray | adiabatic cotton burner (this is a larger version of the one that I used in class)
- lecture 11 - Stirling engine | thermoelectric engine (not recorded)
- lecture 14 - Slinky - longitudinal and transverse waves
- lecture 15 - tubing - wavespeed depends on tension | predicting wave speed ( v = sqrt(T/mu) ) | Shive wave machine - amplitudes add or subtract | 6 still shots of the amplitudes adding/subtracting: still1, still2, still3, (notice in the next one that the two waves essentially cancel each other out for a brief instant in time) still4, still5, still6 | Here's another one we won't do, but which may be helpful to some of you: spring vs circular motion
- lecture 17 - Reflection at boundary
- lecture 18 - no sound in a vacuum | tuning forks | singing rod | Joy to the World (with compressed air hose) | Doppler effect | hearing test (note that I don't know if the microphone picked up the highest frequencies, because I myself can't hear them!)
- lecture 19 - two speaker interference | standing waves on a rubber tube | lady's belt and jigsaw | trumpet harmonics (note in the recording I said "even without using notes" where I meant "without using valves") | flame standing waves | beats
- lecture 23 - waves on a slinky: initial shape of triangle | square pulse (happened too quickly to capture on video, sorry)
- lecture 25 - basic reflection and refraction (sorry, no video)
- lecture 26 - TIR in a stream of water | fiber optic - large fiber (sorry, no video) | fiber optic - actual size fibers (sorry, no video)
- lecture 27 - light coming through three polarizers (sorry, no video) | light reflecting at brewster angle
- lecture 28 - mirror real image or not | filament reflected in bulb | hanging ball pendulum
- lecture 29 - lens real image or not | covering up half of the lens (sorry, no video)
- lecture 32 - diffraction from a double slit
- lecture 33 - interference from a thin film
- lecture 34 - diffraction from a single wide slit | measuring the width of a hair
- lecture 35 - diffraction from a grating

## Labs

- Instructions for all the labs, along with the sheets which must be turned in, can be found in the main syllabus packet following the homework problems. Due-dates for the labs are shown on the main schedule, the first page of the syllabus.
- All but two of the labs are similar to the "walk-in" labs of Physics 121. They will be set up in room S415 ESC on the dates indicated on the schedule.
- Two of the labs involve computer simulations. Follow these links to get more information for those labs:

## Term Project Info

- Guidelines for the term project (includes a grading rubric)
- Some possible term project ideas
- Some actual term projects from previous semesters

## Tutorial Lab Info

- Where to find the Tutorial Lab
- Tutorial lab schedule. Notice only some of the tutors are labeled with a "123". Those are the tutors who are supposed to have worked the problems for our class. (Not the "Paper only" problems, though, just the computer-graded ones.)
- Physics 123 tutors (as of 7 Jan 2011, this appears to be an old group of TAs)
- Feedback form to contact the Tutorial Lab supervisor, Dr. Campbell

## Old Exams

Here are some old exams for you to use as study aids. There's no guarantee that this year's 123 exams will be the same as any of these posted exams, in terms of multiple choice/not multiple choice, time limit/no time limit, notes/no notes, calculators/no calculators, and so forth.

- Physics 123 section 2 (from Colton, Fall 2010)
- Physics 123 section 2 (from Durfee, Winter 2011)
- Physics 105 exams (from Colton, Fall 2007 - Fall 2009). I have included these because some of the topics overlap, even though 105 didn't go into as much depth as 123 does.
- Exam 4 - Fall 2007 | Fall 2007 solutions | Fall 2008 | Fall 2008 solutions | Fall 2009 | Fall 2009 solutions
- Final Exam - Fall 2007 | Fall 2007 solutions | Fall 2008 | Fall 2008 solutions | Fall 2009 | Fall 2009 solutions

- Exams from a junior-level Thermodynamics class I taught at University of Wisconsin-La Crosse (Spring 2006). The first part of that class was fairly similar to the Thermodynamics section of this course, but there are of course some differences. Still, these may be helpful to you.

## This year's exams

- Exam 1 | Exam 1 - solutions
- Exam 2 | Exam 2 - solutions
- Exam 3 | Exam 3 - solutions
- Final Exam | Final Exam - solutions

## How to get started

- You need to do the following things as soon as the semester begins. (If you have added the class late, it's even more important to do them ASAP.)

→ If you have not received one in an email, get a "class ID number" using the "Obtain your class ID number" link on this page. You will use the CID as your personal identifier for all your assignments.

→ Read the syllabus, available either as a pdf file elsewhere on this web page, or from the bookstore. Among other things, the HW problems are found in the syllabus.

→ Get a copy of the Serway & Jewett textbook (see textbook info, elsewhere on this web page). If you can't get one soon, you can use one of the copies available in the Tutorial Lab (see Tutorial Lab info elsewhere on this web page).

→ Do the reading assignments for each upcoming lecture as marked on the schedule on pg 1 of the syllabus; if joining late, do the past reading assignments.

→ Get an "i-clicker" at the bookstore if you don't already have one. Bring your clicker to each class.

→ Register your clicker (via the link elsewhere on this page) so that you get credit for in-class clicker quizzes.

→ Get your individualized homework data numbers which you will plug into the HW problems in your syllabus, using the "Print HW data sheet" link on this page.

→ Start working HW problems! The first assignment is due Wed, Sept 1. You can get credit for late assignments, so work the HW sets you miss/have missed, in addition to the ones coming up. The syllabus has much more about how to turn in HW problems.

→ Where required, submit your computer-graded HW answers via the online system using the "Submit HW" link. Again, read how to do this in the HW section of the syllabus. Learn how to get partial credit by re-submitting the problems you get wrong. Talk to other students to figure this out, if necessary. HW due-dates are marked on page 1 of the syllabus.

→ Be sure to turn in the work for your HW problems to the slot labeled “Phys 123, section 2” in boxes near room N375 ESC.

→ Sign up for a departmental computer account if you don't have one already.

→ Gain access to the departmental computer labs (N337 and N212) by talking to Diann Sorenson in room N281.

## Mathematica

- Dr. Colton's Basic Commands of Mathematica document. (Must be opened with Mathematica.)
- BYU Physics Department's website for Physics 230, where among other things the
*Introduction to Mathematica*textbook can be downloaded (if you want even more Mathematica than my "Basic Commands" document).

## Math Review

- Here's the Math Review handout which is referred to in homework 1.
- Here are the Solutions for the Math Review handout, for you to use checking your answers and learn how to do the problems you missed.

## Supplementary Material

- download Lee's Lorentz Transformation program (an exe file)
- Fourier series summary - handout by Dr. Colton (for Fall 2010 semester)
- Complex numbers summary - handout by Dr. Colton (for Fall 2010 semester)
- What is entropy? - handout by Dr. Colton (for Fall 2010 semester)
- First & Second Laws of Thermodynamics song: //www.uky.edu/~holler/CHE107/media/first_second_law.mp3
- download Spectrum Lab (a .zip file)
- Dr. Harold Stokes' computer resources website. Among other things, that website has:
- "Traveling sine wave" flash animation
- "Driving past bell tower" audio
- "Doppler effect" web demo
- "Sonic boom" web demo

- Worked physics problems available from U of Oregon (includes Thermal Physics)
- Study tips, by Dan Styer of Oberlin College
- How to solve physics problems, by Dan Styer of Oberlin College