#### 100-Level Courses

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Principles of classical and modern physics. Concepts and simple calculations applied to the world around us.

#### Outcomes

**Classical Physics:**Use basic physical laws and concepts to analyze everyday phenomena and do simple calculations involving those laws. These laws and concepts include Newton's laws of motion, conservation laws, simple thermodynamics, fluids, and electricity and magnetism.**Modern Physics:**Qualitatively discuss and do simple calculations involving modern physics concepts that are not everyday but which have important practical and philosophical implications in today's world, such as quantum mechanics, nuclear physics and relativity.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Applied physics course not requiring calculus. Mechanics, heat, wave motion, and sound.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring.

#### Prerequisites

- High school algebra and trigonometry.

#### Recommended

- Concurrent enrollment in Phscs 107.

#### Outcomes

**Newton's Laws:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions about kinematics and Newton's laws in both linear and rotational contexts.**Energy and Momentum:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions about energy and momentum in both linear and rotational contexts.**Fluids, Temperatures, and Heat:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions about static flowing fluids, heat capacity and transfer, ideal gases, laws of thermodynamics, and heat engines.**Waves:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions about harmonic motion, waves, interference, and sound.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Continuation of Phscs 105. Electricity and magnetism, modern physics, and optics

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Summer.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 105 or equivalent.

#### Recommended

- Concurrent enrollment in Phscs 108.

#### Outcomes

**Electric Charges, Fields, Potentials, Circuits:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions about electric charges, fields, electric potentials, and circuits.**Magnetic fields, Forces, Faraday's Law, EM Waves:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions about magnetic fields, magnetic forces, Faraday's Law, and electromagnetic waves.**Geometric and Wave Optics:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions about geometric and wave optics.**Special Relativity, Quantum, Atomic, and Nuclear Physics:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions about special relativity, quantum physics, atomic physics, and nuclear physics.

**Credit Hours:** 1.0

#### Description

- Lab experiments in mechanics and thermodynamics. Measuring and analyzing data.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 105 or concurrent enrollment.

#### Outcomes

**Proposing, testing, and revising models:**Understand the use of mechanistic and mathematical models to describe physical phenomena related to mechanics, thermodynamics, waves, and fluids. Propose predictive models, test predictions, and then revise models as needed.**Designing and conducting experiments:**Design and carry out experiments to test proposed models.**Observing, measuring, and analyzing physical data:**Make quantitative measurements with appropriate detectors and analyze the recorded data.**Communicating scientific results:**Evaluate experimental results and communicate them in reports and with group members.

**Credit Hours:** 1.0

#### Description

- Lab experiments in electricity, magnetism, optics, and modern physics. Measuring and analyzing data.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Summer.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 106 or concurrent enrollment.

#### Outcomes

**Proposing, evaluating, and revising models:**Propose mechanistic and mathematical models for phenomena related to electricity and magnetism, optics, and modern physics.**Designing and conducting experiments:**Design and carry out experiments to test proposed models.**Observing, measuring, and analyzing physical data:**Make quantitative measurements with appropriate detectors and analyze the recorded data.**Communicating scientific results:**Evaluate experimental results and communicate them in reports and with group members.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Linear, circular, and projectile motion; their prediction from forces and torques. Conservation of energy and momentum. Weekly lab.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring.

#### Prerequisites

- Calculus or concurrent enrollment.

#### Outcomes

**Units and Significant Figures:**Convert quantities from one set of units to another and use a reasonable number of significant digits when expressing answers.**Motion of a Particle:**Interpret and draw motion diagrams including "blinking light' diagrams, x(t), v(t), a(t), and y(x) plots. Understand what time derivatives mean and how to estimate time derivatives from the information in these diagrams. Compute a particle's classical translational motion in one or two dimensions, including circular motion, both in Cartesian coordinates and in polar coordinates.**Newton's Second Law:**Use Newton's Second Law to calculate the motion of objects, both in translation and rotation, and also those in simple harmonic motion, as well as the forces and torques acting on systems in equilibrium. Also use Newton's inverse-square law of gravity to calculate how objects move.**Energy and Momentum:**Use the ideas of energy, work, power, linear momentum, impulse, and angular momentum to arrive at conclusions about the motion of a system, including systems in which collisions occur.**Scientific Process:**Demonstrate an understanding of the basic scientific principles that undergird the scientific process, including the strengths and weaknesses of this process.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Waves, thermal physics, optics, special relativity, and introduction to modern physics. Weekly lab.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 121 or equivalent. Calculus.

#### Outcomes

**Fluid States:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions using the basics of fluid statics and dynamics, including Bernoulli's principle and Pascal's law.**Temperature, Pressure, Entropy, and Volume for Ideal Gases:**Answer conceptual questions and calculate changes in temperature, pressure, entropy and volume for quasistatic ideal gas processes and be able to determine work done and efficiency for gas engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. Determine heat flow and temperatures in systems in steady state.**Physics of Waves:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions involving waves, using concepts such as wave speed, wavelength, frequency, superposition, beats, and resonance. Solve wave interference problems.**Imaging with Optics and Optical Systems:**Find the location and magnification of images in single- and multiple-lens/mirror systems by calculation and by ray tracing, and be able to work general problems in optics using Snell's law and specular reflection.**Special Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, and Nuclear Physics:**(Section 1) Solve problems and answer conceptual questions in basic modern physics including special relativity, and quantum mechanics and nuclear physics.**Waves, Fourier Anaylsis, Musical Acoustic,Special Relativity:**(Section 2) Solve more advanced problems and answer conceptual questions in wave analysis, including calculating group and phases velocities, solving for Fourier coefficients of periodic functions, and frequencies of notes in the equal temperament musical scale. Solve problems in special relativity.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Conceptual presentation of knowledge of the content and history of the cosmos, frequently using observatory and/or planetarium.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring.

#### Outcomes

**Astronomical Terminology and Perspective:**Students will be able to answer conceptual questions using correct astrophysical terminology about the following core astronomy concepts:

* the motion of the Earth and the objects seen in the visible sky

* how and into what the Universe is organized by gravity at all scales from the solar system to the superclusters of galaxies.

* the significant and unique characteristics of each planet and other components of the solar system.

* the essential physical concepts that govern the life cycle of stars from creation to death, how the Sun compares to other stars, and the changes the Sun and stars will go through during their life cycles.

* the structure and classification of galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

* the central ideas of and evidences for current big bang cosmologies.**Night Sky:**Students will be able to identify common naked eye constellations, bright stars and deep sky objectsin the sky.**Observing Projects:**Students will gain practical experience by performing their own astronomical observations, interpreting their observations and communicating their results.**Appreciation of our Creator's Universe:**Students will appreciate the grandeur of our Savior's universe.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Introduction to the physics behind energy production and consumption and the associated impact on ecology, climate, and the environment

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Outcomes

**Concepts:**Evaluate issues regarding energy, climate, and the environment based on an understanding of the physical principles involved in energy production and consumption, climate modeling, and Earth's dynamic environmental systems.**Analyses:**Analyze scenarios and interpret data given in graphs and tables about energy, climate, and the environment.**Communication:**Present, discuss, and write about issues regarding energy, climate, and environment.

**Credit Hours:** 1.0

#### Description

- Introduction to physical measurement and analysis, optics, sensors, actuators, and computer-based data acquisition.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 140. Phscs 121 or equivalent.

#### Outcomes

**Basic Skills:**Demonstrate good practices in experimental physics documentation and communication such as data collection, record keeping, and presentation.**Data Analysis:**Demonstrate the ability to analyze experimental data this includes techniques such as error estimation, error propagation, model selection, and curve fitting.**Oscillating Signal Analysis:**Apply AC concepts such as frequency response, frequency filtering, fourier transform analysis, and impedance to sinusoidally-driven electrical, mechanical, optical, and acoustical systems.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Introductory acoustics course, emphasizing physical principles underlying production and perception of music and speech.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter.

#### Outcomes

**Concepts:**Define the basic terminologies of acoustics, identify physical principles involved in common situations and answer conceptual questions related to hearing, speech, audio, listening environments, and musical instruments.**Models of acoustical systems:**Apply scientific models to analysis of hearing, speech and musical instruments, etc.**Analysis:**Solve basic problems related to hearing, speech, audio, listening environments, and musical instruments.**Writing:**Write effectively using the terminology of acoustics and logically outline how acoustics is important in a discipline of their choice.

**Credit Hours:** 0.5

#### Description

- Survey of BYU undergraduate physics and astronomy programs, careers in physics and astronomy, and current physics and astronomy research.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Term 1.

#### Outcomes

**Subfields of Physics:**Describe the major subfields of physics and the breadth of interdisciplinary research to which physicists contribute.**Educational Plan:**Develop a draft of an educational plan for both undergraduate and graduate training.**Current Physics Research:**Describe examples of current research in physics or astronomy, explaining what questions are being asked by the investigators and why these questions are interesting.**Careers in Physics:**Describe career opportunities available in physics and astronomy and the specific preparation necessary for these careers.

**Credit Hours:** 1.0

#### Description

- Review of mathematics and introductory physics for returning missionaries and others returning after a significant break.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Term 1.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 121 or equivalent. Math 113 or concurrent enrollment.

#### Outcomes

**Math Review:**Recall and apply the fundamental mathematical concepts and techniques up to the level of differential and beginning integral calculus that are necessary for Physics 121.**Physics Review:**Recall and apply fundamental physics concepts at the level of Physics 121.

#### 200-Level Courses

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Electricity and magnetism. Weekly lab.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring.

#### Prerequisites

- MATH 113. Phscs 121 or equivalent.

#### Recommended

- It is highly recommended that Phscs 220 and Phscs 225 be taken concurrently.

#### Outcomes

**Electrostatics:**Use Maxwell's equations to find electric and magnetic fields in symmetric arrangements of static charges and steady currents. Also find electric and magnetic fields by integrating over charge and current densities.**Energy and Motion of Charged Particles:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions involving electromagnetic energy (potential), forces, and the motion of charged particles and dipoles.**Electrical Circuits:**Analyze simple direct current and alternating current circuits of resistors, inductors, capacitors and power supplies.**Electrodynamics:**Use Maxwell's equations to solve problems and answer conceptual questions with changing electric and magnetic fields, including induction and electromagnetic radiation.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Quantum physics, atoms, molecules, condensed matter, nuclei, elementary particles, and selected topics in contemporary physics.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 123 & Phscs 220. Phscs 121 or equivalent.

#### Recommended

- Math 302 or Math 314.

#### Outcomes

**Fundamental Principles:**Demonstrate their understanding of the fundamental postulates and principles of special relativity and quantum mechanics.**Simple Systems:**Apply the principles of quantum mechanics to predict the results of measurements in simple systems such as a free particle, simple potential wells, and central potentials.**Applications:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions applying the principles of quantum mechanics and special relativity to topics in modern physics such as atomic physics, molecular physics, the physics of solids, statistical physics, nuclear physics, radioactivity, and particle physics.

**Credit Hours:** 2.0

#### Description

- Introduction to skills and approaches to foster innovation and leadership in experimental science. Hands-on experience constructing knowledge through a process of observing phenomena, proposing models, generating predictions, designing and conducting experiments, and analyzing and evaluating findings. Focus on developing skills for effectively pursuing experimental goals in teams. Exploration of physical systems in the domain of electrical phenomena and measurement and control using electrical transducers, analog and digital circuits, and microcontrollers. Analog and digital circuit concepts, simple linear network theory and impedance concepts using complex representations.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter.

#### Outcomes

**Observation and measurement:**Observe and measure electrical phenomena: recognize patterns, relationships, and incongruities.**Proposing and evaluating models:**Propose mechanistic and mathematical models and design and carryout experiments to evaluate competing models.**Experimental design and analysis:**Analyze/Organize data and apply statistical hypothesis testing concepts in both design and analysis of experiments.**Models of electrical phenomena:**Develop and apply models of electrical phenomena and devices using basic concepts of charge, voltage, complex impedance, spectrum analysis, and linear networks.**Electrical circuits:**Use circuits in a context where physicists use them -- making measurements, interfacing with instruments and computers, signal conditioning, collecting data, and controlling apparatus.**Leadership and teamwork:**Develop patterns for effective leadership and teamwork.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Solar-system dynamics, planetary surfaces and atmospheres. Analysis of stellar data from telescopes, spectrometers and photometers. Interaction of light with atoms and molecules. Extrasolar planets.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 121; Math 112 or equivalent; Phscs 127 or concurrent.

#### Outcomes

**Celestial Mechanics and the Nature of Light:**Students will be able to solve elementary problems in classical celestial mechanics and in the interaction of light with atoms and molecules. Mastery will be measured through the use of homework and exam problems.**The Solar System:**Students will be able to describe the differences between the planets and the moons and how these differences provide clues as to their formation history. Mastery of this knowledge will be determined through short answer essay questions on exams and preclass questions.**Scientific Writing:**Students will be taught how to search astronomy publications to gather information on a given topic and present their findings in the form of a scientific paper with proper acknowledgement. Progress will be monitored through regular meetings with the instructor who will determine at each interview the student's progress and provide appropriate guidance. Students will be given a rubric to guide them in the writing of the paper, and the rubric will be used to grade the final paper**Research Opportunities:**Students will write an ORCA or Internship application specific to their area of study. This will introduce them to research opportunities. Students will be guided throughout the process. Applications will be graded by the professor for completeness and the student may submit the application to the appropriate funding agency if they choose, but this is not required.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Stellar atmospheres, stellar interiors, stellar evolution, interstellar matter, galactic structure, external galaxies, and cosmology.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- PHSCS 227 & MATH 113.

#### Outcomes

**The Interstellar Medium, Star Formation, and Evolution:**Display a qualitative and simple quantitative understanding of the role of the interstellar medium in star formation, stellar structure and evolution;**Stellar Populations and Galactic Structure:**Demonstrate an understanding of stellar populations and galactic structure;**The Milky Way and Other Galaxies:**Display a knowledge of the basic properties of galaxies;**Cosmology:**Display a qualitative grasp of up-to-date observational cosmology and solve elementary problems in theoretical cosmology.

**Credit Hours:** 1.0

#### Description

- Introduction to numerical and symbolic computation and graphical analysis using a symbolic mathematics program. Applications to mechanics, optics, and special relativity.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Math 113, Phscs 121, 123. Phscs 220 or concurrent enrollment. Math 302 or 313 or concurrent enrollment.

#### Recommended

- C S 142 or concurrent enrollment.

#### Outcomes

**Mathematical Basics:**Demonstrate the ability to apply calculus, linear algebra, and complex analysis to solve undergraduate-level physics problems.**Programming:**Demonstrate the ability to use programming constructs such as looping, conditional execution, and iteration to solve physics problems.**Solve Equations:**Solve equations, including systems of equation, related to physical phenomena both symbolically and numerically.**Develop Insight:**Demonstrate the ability to visualize, analyze, and interpret equations, data, and physical models.

**Credit Hours:** 2.0

#### Description

- Machining, computer interfacing, controls, and vacuum systems.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- PHSCS 123 & PHSCS 145; or PHSCS 123 & PHSCS 225.

#### Outcomes

**Design and Build Experimental Apparatus:**Plan and construct mechanical and electrical systems for physical measurements using computer aided design, metal machining, soldering, and circuit construction.**Measure and Analyze Experimental Results:**Make involved physical measurements and use approximate quantitative models to characterize the physical systems. Analyze and describe measurements of the systems. Use signal averaging and curve fitting.**Software automation and control:**Learn and use LabVIEW basics for software automation of hardware using feedback control.**Record Keeping:**Document in a personal lab notebook the procedures, methods, results, and analysis of laboratory exercises.**Presentation:**Present work in writing (technical report and journal article) and through oral presentations**Review scientific literature:**Identify relevant literature and summarize important findings.**Ethics:**Demonstrate understanding of professional ethics guidelines for research activities and presentation of results.

**Credit Hours:** 2.0

#### Description

- In-depth, multi-period experiments in contemporary physics, using advanced instrumentation.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 220, 240.

#### Outcomes

**Students will become proficient independent experimenters through multi-period, in-depth projects:**Independently set goals, establish success criteria, determine feasibility, and design the experiment, including choosing and acquiring appropriate instruments and materials. Make and test predictions.**Develop proposals for independent research:**Learn to write and evaluate white papers and proposals and participate in proposal selection process. Carry out proposed research.**Advanced instrumentation and techniques:**Demonstrate the use and assembly of experimental systems using contemporary instrumentation components to perform experiments with optical instrumentation, vacuum systems, lock-in detection, and Fourier analysis. Learn to approach new instruments and techniques independently.**Oral presentation:**Develop ability to effectively and persuasively present proposals and research results.**Synthesizing learning:**Synthesize and apply theoretical learning to experimental research.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Introduction to physics of solids, including laboratory experience.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 220; Phscs 121 or equivalent.

#### Outcomes

**Crystals:**Use the concepts of lattices, unit cells, and the atomic basis to describe the structure of crystals.**Reciprocal Space:**Apply the concept of reciprocal lattices and the first Brillouin zone to arrive at conclusions about wave diffraction, dispersion graphs of lattice waves, and electron energy bands.**Electrons in Crystals:**Apply basic principles of quantum mechanics to describe the behavior of electrons in crystalline solids and describe the concepts of density of states, Pauli's exclusion principle, the Dirac distribution function, and band structure.**Band Structure:**Use the ideas of band structure to arrive at conclusions about the electrical properties of materials. Use the ideas of doping to arrive at conclusions about the electrical properties of semiconductors.

**Credit Hours:** 0.5

#### Description

- Career opportunities for physicists in industry, interdisciplinary research, national labs and observatories, and professions such as medicine, law, and business. Personal planning for research or internship involvement. As Phscs 291 includes assignments to help students get started on their senior theses, it should only be taken by Physics majors or those seriously considering a Physics major.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Term 2.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 121; Phscs 191 or concurrent enrollment.

#### Recommended

- It is recommended that students take this class during their sophomore year.

#### Outcomes

**Careers:**Describe career opportunities for physicists in industry, interdisciplinary research, national labs and observatories, and professions such as medicine, law and business.**Prepare for Success:**Learn how to prepare for and succeed in such careers from physicists working in them.**Research Plan:**Develop a plan for research or internship involvement.**Graduate School:**Develop a plan for graduate school (if the student's career path requires it).

**Credit Hours:** 0.5-3.0

#### Description

- Faculty-supervised research experience.

#### Typically Offered

- Spring-Summer Contact Dept..

#### Outcomes

**Research and Write:**Produce an informal written report in acceptable scientific style describing the results of this mentored research experience.

#### 300-Level Courses

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Exploring principles of mechanics through scripted inquiry resulting in personal discovery of key principles and learning to teach through inquiry methods.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 105 or Phscs 121.

#### Outcomes

**Constructivist Learning Model:**Teach and learn physics using constructivist inquiry based modes of instruction.**Physics Teaching Using Technology:**Be able to deliver laboratory instruction to students using only meter sticks and stopwatches (low tech data collection) and also using electronic probes (high tech data collection).Use of Video and Computer Data collection techniques.**Development and Experience with of a Suite of Secondary Scho:**Leave class with a suite of about 15 labs that they have completed and written up from the constructivist teacher model that they can use immediately in the 7-12 secondary physics classroom.**Development of Physics Pedagogic Teaching Skills:**Develop teaching skills in using projects, practicums and lab experimentation that can be transferred to secondary schools when they are teachers.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Exploring principles of electricity through scripted inquiry resulting in personal discovery of key principles and learning to teach through inquiry methods.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 106 or Phscs 220.

#### Outcomes

**Constructivist Learning Model:**Teach physics using constructivist inquiry based modes of instruction, scripted inquiry.**Physics Teaching Using Technology:**Be able to deliver laboratory instruction to students from the CASTLE Electricity units.**Development & Experience a Suite of Secondary School Electr:**Develop teaching skills in using projects, practicums and lab experimentation that can be transferred to secondary schools when they are teachers.**Development of Physics Pedagogic Teaching Skills:**Develop a teaching suite of labs for teaching electricity.Develop the ability to use alternative modes of assessment that take students beyond the multiple choice format of assessment to open ended, "apply the physics you understand" to this problem.

**Credit Hours:** 0.5-3.0

#### Description

- Special topics in physics for undergraduate physics majors.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Contact Dept.; Winter Contact Dept.; Spring Contact Dept.; Summer Contact Department.

#### Outcomes

**Master Subject:**Achieve the learning outcomes of the trial courses assigned this number from time to time.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Partial differential equations, classical field equations, algebra of complex variables, Fourier analysis, integral transforms, and orthogonal functions.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 230; and Math 303 or 334; and Math 302 or Math 314.

#### Outcomes

**Partial Differential Equations:**Solve partial differential equations in Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical coordinates using separation of variables and expansions in orthogonal functions. Apply boundary conditions appropriate for physical systems.**Complex Numbers:**Perform algebraic computations involving complex numbers and functions.**Special Functions:**Use the properties (such as recursion relations, derivative relationships, and orthogonality conditions) of various special functions, including trigonometric functions, Bessel functions, and Legendre polynomials to solve problems involving those functions.**Fourier Analysis:**Use Fourier series and transforms to expand functions and solve partial differential equations on appropriate domains.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Newton's laws applied to particles and systems of particles, including rigid bodies. Conservation principles and Lagrange's and Hamilton's equations.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Spring.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 121 & Phscs 230 & Math 302; or Phscs 121 & Phscs 230 & Math 314. Math 303 or 334 or concurrent enrollment.

#### Recommended

- Concurrent enrollment in Phscs 330.

#### Outcomes

**Newton's Laws:**Use Newtonian mechanics with forces and torques to solve problems in Cartesian and curvilinear coordinates.**Work, Energy, and Momentum:**Solve mechanics problems using work-energy, and conservation of energy, momentum and angular momentum.**Rotation:**Solve and analyze rigid-body problems and problems in non-inertial frames.**Lagrangion and Hamiltonian mechanics:**Use Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics to obtain the equations of motion for a variety of problems, including the use of generalized coordinates and cyclic coordinates.**Perturbation Theory:**Use perturbation and similar techniques to linearize equations of motion to analyze stability and study coupled systems using normal modes.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Basic techniques of observational astronomy, emphasizing practical experience in optical data acquisition and analysis.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 127.

#### Recommended

- PHSCS 228 concurrent enrollment if not completed

#### Outcomes

**Observing with a Telescope and CCD camera:**Obtain publication quality astronomical data (photometric data) using a telescope and CCD camera.**Optical Data Reduction and Analysis:**Process raw data and extract astrophysically significant information from data about astronomical objects.**Astronomical Written and Verbal Presentation Skills:**---Present results in astronomical publication format written in AASTeX. ---Present results in poster form like those at American Astronomical Society meetings. ---Prepare a request for telescope time at a facility outside of BYU**Professional Ethics:**Follow professional ethics guidelines in research activities and presentation of results.

**Credit Hours:** 1.0

#### Description

- Numerical solution of ordinary differential equations with applications to dynamics and chaos. Introduction to scientific programming.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Spring.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 230 & CS 142 & Math 302; or Phscs 230 & CS 142 & Math 334.

#### Outcomes

**Computer Programming and Differential Equations:**Write and debug scientific programs to solve ordinary differential equations and simulate dynamical systems.**Explain Differential Equations:**Qualitatively explain how differential equations generate their solution curves.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Principles of statistical mechanics and thermodynamics, with applications.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 222; and Math 303 or 334; and Math 302 or Math 314.

#### Outcomes

**Thermodynamics:**Use statistical arguments to explain thermodynamics from first principles, including heat flow and the increase of entropy. Apply these to solve quantitative problems in thermodynamics.**Equilibrium and Phase Transformations:**Use thermodynamic potentials, e.g. the Helmholtz and Gibbs free energies, to predict equilibrium states in physical systems and predict phase transformations.**Explain Physical Phenomena:**Use simple models to explain physical phenomena in a variety of systems, including: classical and quantum ideal gases, magnetic systems, solids.

**Credit Hours:**

#### Outcomes

**Credit Hours:** 1.0

#### Description

- Attend seminar presentations in current physics and astronomy topics.

#### Outcomes

**Current topics:**Students will become familiar with current topics in this content area.**Build & strengthen career network:**Students will build and strengthen their career network.**Attend seminars:**Students will attend 50% of the seminars offered this semester and write a summary of the topic discussed each time.

**Credit Hours:** 0.5-9.0

#### Description

- Research experience in an industrial, academic, or government laboratory, reported to a BYU faculty member.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring; Summer.

#### Prerequisites

- Both department chair's and internship coordinator's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Research, Write, Present:**Student will report, both verbally and in writing, what he or she learned from the internship experience.

#### 400-Level Courses

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Writing scientific and technical articles and proposals. Writing and presentation skills applied to senior thesis or capstone project. Resources and guidelines for publishing in physics.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Completed research for thesis or capstone project.

#### Outcomes

**Communication:**Communicate succinctly and precisely in both written and oral formats.**Thesis:**Write a thesis/capstone report or a professional paper.**Ethics:**Describe ethical issues that may arise in the physics profession and formulate appropriate responses to these issues.**Professional Documents and Presentations:**Produce professional documents (resume, memo, etc.) and presentations.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- The study of the structure, evolution, and light output of stars and how they fit within the galactic structure.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Prerequisites

- PHSCS 228 & C S 142 & MATH 302; or PHSCS 228 & C S 142 & MATH 314.

#### Outcomes

**Synthesizing Relevant Journal Articles:**Read multiple astronomy journal articles covering content from this course and synthesize the information to provide a clearly written discussion of the material.**Astrophysical Content:**---Discuss conceptual understanding and work mathematical solutions for the connection between stars and basic galactic structure. ---Discuss conceptual understanding and work mathematical solutions for the formation of spectral lines in astrophysical objects. ---Discuss conceptual understanding and work mathematical solutions for the basics of stellar structure and evolution. ---Use basic equations and computer programs to explore stellar astrophysics.**Astronomical Writing Skills:**Prepare an astronomy journal style article detailing a single astronomical topic related to class material. Do this with proper ethical considerations.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- The study of the formation, nature, and evolution of galaxies together with the study of the universe as a whole using Big Bang cosmology.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- PHSCS 228 & C S 142 & MATH 303; or PHSCS 228 & C S 142 & MATH 334. MATH 314.

#### Outcomes

**Galaxy Properties:**Students will describe and quantify galaxy morphological types, dynamics, formation history, content, age, chemistry, evolution and clustering. They will place these properties in the context of current theory.**Active Galactic Nuclei:**Students will describe the observational aspects of all active galactic nuclei (AGN) classes (quasars, blazars, Seyferts I and II, FR- I and FR-II radio galaxies, LINERS). They will apply the standard model to explain these different classes and to explain how AGN evolve with time.**Cosmology :**Starting with Newtonian dynamics, students will derive the basic energy equation of an expanding universe. They will extend it to curved-space using the Robertson-Walker metric, and derive and apply the Friedmann equations to different possible universes.**Big Bang Theory :**Students will describe and contrast big bang and steady state cosmologies and explain why big bang is preferred. They will memorize and explain the main eras in big bang evolution including inflation. They will present and explain the significance of the multipole analysis of the cosmic background radiation (CMB).**Technical Writing :**Students will research and write a 20 page paper on one aspect of cosmology. They will present this paper either in class or at the spring research conference.

**Credit Hours:** 1.0

#### Description

- Computational study of static and dynamic boundary value problems, partial differential equations, linear algebra, and eigenvalues. Applications such as electrostatics, thermodynamics, waves, and quantum mechanics. Computational tools to store, share, and analyze data, including machine learning.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter; Summer.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 222, 318, 330.

#### Outcomes

**Numerically Solve Partial Differential Equations:**Write and debug programs to solve physics problems involving partial differential equations.**Linear Algebra:**Use linear algebra and eigenvalues in the solution of partial differential equations and to find normal modes in mechanical systems.**Data Analysis:**Use databases to store and share data. Use machine learning tools to model and find patterns in data.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Classical theory of static electric and magnetic fields.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Spring.

#### Prerequisites

- PHSCS 220 & PHSCS 318.

#### Outcomes

**Vector Calculus:**Demonstrate the ability to apply the concepts of vector calculus as used in Maxwell's equations.**Integrating Static Sources:**Demonstrate the ability to integrate over a source distribution to calculate time-independent fields and potentials for both electricity and magnetism. Also demonstrate the ability to use Gauss's law and Amperes law to find electric and magnetic fields in symmetric situations.**Image Charges and Currents:**Demonstrate the ability to use vacuum harmonics, image charges, and image currents to solve for time-independent electric and magnetic potentials and fields.**Material Influences:**Demonstrate the ability to calculate electric and magnetic fields in the presence of matter which can be electrically and magnetically polarized, including the ability to solve problems involving torques and potential energies of electric and magnetic dipoles.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Maxwell's equations, radiation, interaction of electromagnetic fields with matter, and special relativity.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter; Summer.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 441.

#### Outcomes

**Time-dependent Sources:**Demonstrate the ability to calculate time-dependent electric fields using Faraday's law and the ability to calculate time-dependent magnetic fields using Maxwell's displacement current.**Energy Densities:**Demonstrate the ability to solve problems involving electric and magnetic energy densities and the Maxwell stress tensor.**Electromagnetic Waves:**Demonstrate the ability to use Maxwell's equations to solve problems involving electromagnetic waves in vacuum and in matter.**Retarded Time:**Demonstrate the ability to use the concept of retarded time to compute radiation potentials.**Relativity:**Demonstrate the ability to solve problems involving the special theory of relativity, including 4-vectors, form invariance, and the electromagnetic field tensor.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Analytical foundations of quantum mechanics.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 222 & Phscs 318.

#### Outcomes

**Concepts of Quantum Mechanics:**Understand the mechanics of operators, eigenstates and eigenvalues. Learn how to build wave functions, estimate expectation values and standard deviations, and apply the Heisenberg uncertainty principle.**Mathematical Techniques:**Manipulate the Schrödinger equation to solve for wave functions.**Solutions for Standard Potentials:**Develop free-particle and bound-state solutions to the Schrödinger equation. (In particular, harmonic oscillator, infinite and finite square-well, finite barrier potentials…).**Hydrogen:**Construct simple solutions for Hydrogen atom, angular momentum and spin systems, atoms and solids.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Applications of quantum mechanics to atomic, molecular, statistical, condensed-matter, and nuclear physics; elementary particles.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 451.

#### Outcomes

**Quantum systems:**Apply techniques such as time-independent perturbation theory, variational methods, time-dependent perturbation theory, and scattering theory to quantum systems.**Level Splitting:**Describe and quantify fine, hyperfine, and Zeeman level splittings in atoms.**Emission and Absorption:**Characterize emission and absorption of radiation by atoms, and derive the associated selection rules.**Scattering and Tunneling:**Solve quantum scattering and tunneling problems.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Mathematical descriptions of physical phenomena in generation, propagation, and reception of acoustic waves. Fundamental acoustical instrumentation and analysis techniques. Application of physical principles and mathematical models to realistic problems.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- PHSCS 121 & MATH 303; or PHSCS 121 & MATH 334.

#### Recommended

- Phscs 123 or equivalent. Concurrent enrollment in Phscs 318 or equivalent.

#### Outcomes

**Principles of Acoustics:**Demonstrate a conceptual and mathematical understanding of acoustical phenomena, including source radiation, transmission, absorption, and reflection.**Acoustical Measurements and Reporting:**Perform acoustical measurements, interpret the data, and document the results in the form of technical laboratory reports.**Acoustical Calculations:**Appropriately calculate various measures of sound, including sound pressure level, transmission loss, sound power, weighted levels, and noise criteria.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Electromagnetic wave phenomena, including polarization effects, interference, coherence, dispersion, ray theory, diffraction; introduction to quantum nature of light. Laboratory component emphasizes applications.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter; Summer.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 123 & Phscs 220 & Math 302; or Phscs 123 & Phscs 220 & Math 314. Math 303 or 334 or concurrent enrollment.

#### Recommended

- Phscs 318.

#### Outcomes

**Basic Optics Concepts:**Use mathematical and conceptual descriptions of propagation of light in matter, reflection/transmission at boundaries, polarization effects, interference, dispersion, coherence, image formation, diffraction, and quantum aspects of light to analyze and predict optical phenomena.**Lab Work:**Manipulate and measure properties of light in a laboratory setting.**Mathematical Tools:**Apply mathematical tools such as vector calculus, complex numbers, matrices, and Fourier transforms (1D and 2D) to optical problems.

**Credit Hours:** 4.0

#### Description

- Supervised, full-day, four week experience to develop and demonstrate competence in teaching minor area course content in the secondary classroom.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring.

#### Prerequisites

- SC ED 377R or minor area equivalent; admittance to teaching major; FBI fingerprint background clearance.

#### Outcomes

**Credit Hours:** 0.5-2.0

#### Description

- Conduct and report original research or appropriate creative work. Mentored career experience combining physics and the chosen area of interest.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring; Summer.

#### Outcomes

**Research and Write:**Students will produce, in both verbal and written form, a report of what was accomplished in his or her capstone project.

**Credit Hours:** 0.5-3.0

#### Description

- Mentored research in physics or astronomy, with approval from a faculty advisor.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring; Summer.

#### Outcomes

**Research and Write:**Produce a written report in acceptable scientific style describing the results of this mentored research experience.

**Credit Hours:** 0.5-2.0

#### Description

- Conduct and report research under a department faculty mentor or other professional.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring; Summer.

#### Outcomes

**Research:**Perform significant research in physics or astronomy under the direction of a faculty or internship mentor.**Writing:**Present their research in a written document that follows professional standards in the field.**Ethics:**Do the above within professional ethical standards.

#### 500-Level Courses

**Credit Hours:** 1.5

#### Description

- Introduction for science, math, and statistics majors to careers in industry. Project planning, oral and written business presentations, business accounting, and technology readiness.

#### Outcomes

**Project Management:**Learn the basics of project management and understand why this is important to business success**Business Skills:**Demonstrate knowledge of business skills necessary to function as a scientist working in industry.Be able to explain how corporate politics can affect your career.**Business Finance:**Learn how to read and understand a business financial accounting statement (both internal and external)**Effective Communication:**Learn how to present concepts and ideas in a clear and effective manner in both oral and written form.**Technology Readiness:**Understand the different levels of technology readiness and the process of moving a project through these levels to completion**Business Projects and Finances:**Learn to read and understand corporate accounting statements and data and understand the basic ideas of project and portfolio management.Learn the steps to moving an idea from concept to completion in a business setting.**Business Presentations and Writing:**Learn the basics of effective business presentations and writing

**Credit Hours:** 1.0

#### Description

- Course will assist graduating students in identifying and connecting to potential employers.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter.

#### Outcomes

**Credit Hours:** 0.5-3.0

#### Description

- Topics generally related to recent developments in physics.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Contact Dept.; Winter Contact Dept.; Spring Contact Dept.; Summer Contact Department.

#### Prerequisites

- Instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Master Subject:**Demonstrate the ability to achieve the learning outcomes of this trial course whose subject is variable.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Advanced techniques of observational astronomy, emphasizing knowledge and skills necessary to carry out observational scientific investigation in astronomy.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 427, 428.

#### Outcomes

**Robotic and Remote telescopes:**Program an observing schedule into a remote/robotic telescope system to acquire high quality data.**Optical Astronomy:**Reduce all-sky photometric astronomical data in multiple filters.**Infared Observations:**Process and analyze infrared astronomical data sets.**Radio Astronomy:**Obtain, process, and analyze radio data on astronomical objects.**Spectroscopic Observations:**Reduce raw astronomical spectroscopic data to 1D wavelength calibrated stectra and calculate astrophysically important data from those spectra.**Multi-wavelength Observations:**Describe observing programs that require multi-wavelength observing programs.

**Credit Hours:**

#### Outcomes

**Credit Hours:** 2.0

#### Description

- Electronic instrumentation theory and methods. Computer aided circuit design and analysis with transforms, logic and computer simulation. Analog, digital, and discrete signal systems. Printed circuit design and system-on-a-chip creation.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Contact Dept.; Winter Contact Dept.; Spring Contact Dept.; Summer Contact Department.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 140, 145, 220; Math 303 or 334; ability to program in Matlab.

#### Outcomes

**Mathematical modeling of electronic circuits & software simulation of circuits:**Students will acquire introductory skill in topics advanced for typical physics curriculum in the application of Laplace Transforms to passive and active analog circuits. in SPICE simulation software for transistor and operational amplifier circuits. in component level debug and repair. in digital logic synthesis and reduction.**Microcontroller implementation and programming:**Students will acquire introductory skill in topics advanced for typical physics curriculum in computing theory and microcontroller applications and programming.**Synthesis of programmable logic:**Students will acquire introductory skill in topics advanced for typical physics curriculum in field programmable gate array (FPGA) configuration, application, and the notion of a system on a chip (SoC).**Circuit manufacturing and packaging skills:**Students will acquire introductory skill in topics advanced for typical physics curriculum in computer aided design (CAD) for printed circuits, soldering, manual chassis wiring, and the use of sheet metal for constructing electronic chassis. in thru hole and surface mount technology assembly and repair, including high pin count, high pin pitch parts.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Introduction to plasma physics, including single-particle motion and both fluid and kinetic models of plasma behavior.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Contact Dept.; Winter Contact Dept.; Spring Contact Dept.; Summer Contact Department.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 321, 441.

#### Outcomes

**Particle and Fluid Descriptions:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions involving both the single-particle and the fluid descriptions of a plasma.**Waves:**Describe and characterize the various waves found in a plasma.**Equilibrium and Stability:**Determine the equilibrium and evaluate the stability of simple plasma configurations.**Kinetic Theory and Nonlinear Effects:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions involving the kinetic theory of plasmas and nonlinear effects.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Acoustics-based data acquisition and signal processing in the time and frequency-domain domains. Use of acoustical measurement standards. Preparation of technical memoranda.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Outcomes

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Vibrating systems, elastic media, mechanical energy, and radiation. Sound generation, transmission, reflection, and reception.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 318 or equivalent; Phscs 461 or concurrent enrollment.

#### Recommended

- Phscs 318, 321; or equivalents.

#### Outcomes

**Vibration and Sound:**Conceptualize and solve problems in fundamental areas of vibroacoustics, including: strings, rods, membranes, beams, plates, plane and spherical waves, reflection and transmission phenomena, and radiation of sources.**Analyze Acoustical Data:**Acquire and analyze acoustical data for physical understanding, and document the results in the form of technical laboratory reports.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Laser amplification, cavity design, and control and characterization of temporal and spatial modes. Interactions between lasers and atoms.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 451, 471; or equivalents.

#### Outcomes

**Laser Design:**Design stable laser resonators, frequency-locking feedback systems, and pulsed-output mode-locking systems.**Measuring Laser Characteristics:**Measure durations of femtosecond pulses and the line width and center frequency of frequency-stabilized sources.**Physics of Lasers:**Compute cavity threshold gain, optimal output coupling, and gain saturation.**Light-matter Interactions:**Describe interactions of light and matter within a semi-classical two-level-atom framework.**Atomic Properties:**Compute cross sections and selection rules for transitions in hydrogen.

**Credit Hours:**

#### Outcomes

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Introduction to the physics of solids. Crystal structure and symmetry, X-ray diffraction, lattice vibrations, metals and semiconductors, superconductivity, thermal properties, magnetic properties, and dielectric and optical properties.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 222 or equivalent.

#### Outcomes

**Basic Concepts in Condensed Matter Physics:**Explain the following basic concepts underlying the topics in solid state physics: (1) crystal symmetry, (2) reciprocal lattice and the first Brillouin zone in k-space, and (3) the quantum behavior of electrons, Pauli's exclusion principle, and the Fermi-Dirac distribution function.**Physical Properties of Solids:**Use these basic concepts to explain crystal structure, x-ray diffraction, lattice vibrations, behavior of electrons in metals and semiconductors, and thermal, magnetic, dielectric and optical properties of materials.**Solve Problems:**Show their understanding of these topics and their underlying concepts by solving problems using a variety of mathematical tools.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Properties of nanostructures, surfaces, and interfaces; experimental methods. Applications to emerging problems and opportunities in science and technology. Emphasis on concepts.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Contact Dept.; Winter Contact Dept.; Spring Contact Dept.; Summer Contact Department.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 222 or equivalent.

#### Recommended

- Phscs 281 or 581 or equivalent; Phscs 451 or Chem 462 or equivalent.

#### Outcomes

**Deepen understanding:**Students will deepen their understanding of nano and surface physics.**Demonstrate knowledge:**Students will demonstrate knowledge in nano and surface physics.**Improve ability to solve problems:**Students will improve their ability to solve problems using nano and surface physics.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Preparation, characterization, use, and special properties of modern thin films; interdisciplinary treatment. Of interest to students in applied physics and engineering.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Odd Yrs..

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 222 or equivalent.

#### Outcomes

**Thin Film Basics:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions, utilizing the graphs, figures and photographs of thin film material science, about structural and chemical aspects of thin films in relation to their environment.**Solve Problems:**Solve problems and answer conceptual questions involving deposition and characterization of films, and explain which ones that best match resources and requirements.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Practical and theoretical aspects of sample preparation, basic and advanced imaging, electron diffraction, and other analytical materials characterization techniques on the transmission electron microscope (TEM).

#### Typically Offered

- Winter Contact Dept..

#### Outcomes

**Images:**Use the TEM to acquire different types of images and diffraction patterns of various materials.**Alignment:**Perform basic, necessary alignments of the transmission electron microscope (TEM).**How the TEM works:**Demonstrate a working knowledge of the physical components of the TEM and peripheral equipment.**TEM Research:**Show understanding of the theory and practice of electron imaging, electron diffraction and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, as how they apply to the characterization of materials.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Device physics, with an in-depth study of the MOS transistor and other nanoscale computing devices.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Contact Dept..

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 281 or 581 or EC En 450.

#### Outcomes

**Fundamental Mechanisms:**Identify the fundamental mechanisms and models of these mechanisms controlling the operation of semiconductor devices.**Analyze Devices:**Apply the fundamental mechanisms and models to the analysis of devices such as silicon mosfets, silicon on insulator transistors, carbon nanotube transistors, and graphene transistors.**Learn the Literature:**Find, read, and utilize contemporary semiconductor device physics literature to write reviews of this literature.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Theoretical aspects of sample preparation, basic and advanced imaging, X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry, and other analytical materials characterization techniques on the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Contact Dept..

#### Outcomes

**Credit Hours:** 0.5-9.0

#### Description

- Cooperative education internships off campus.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring; Summer.

#### Prerequisites

- Department internship coordinator's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Report:**Student will report, both verbally and in writing, what he or she learned from the internship experience.

#### 600-Level Courses

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Topics in modern theoretical physics, including applications of matrix and tensor analysis and linear differential and integral operators.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 318, Math 334; or equivalents.

#### Outcomes

**Complex Analysis:**Solve problems in complex analysis.**Linear Algebra:**Use finite-dimensional vector spaces, linear algebra, to solve problems in mathematical physics.**Infinite Series:**Use properties of infinite series to demonstrate properties of functions and solutions in vector and complex analysis.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Topics in modern theoretical physics, including applications of matrix and tensor analysis and linear differential and integral operators.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 318, Math 334; or equivalents.

#### Outcomes

**Orthogonal Functions:**Solve mathematical problems with applications in physics using infinite dimensional vector spaces, including expansions in orthogonal functions.**Linear Partial Differential Equations:**Solve linear partial differential equations using separation of variables, Green's functions, and transform methods.**Nonlinear Partial Differential Equations:**Use perturbative techniques to analyze nonlinear differential equations.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Theory of stellar atmospheres and the internal structure of stars.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Contact Dept..

#### Prerequisites

- Instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Electromagnetic Radiation and the Transfer Equation:**Demonstrate a quantitative understanding of the principles of radiation fields, electromagnetic radiation, and radiative transfer by solving problems.**Stellar Atmospheres:**Display an understanding of concepts related to the theory of stellar atmospheres including: opacity, optical depth, emissivity, statistical equilibrium, etc.**Stellar Models:**Display a qualitative understanding of the physics of stellar models.**The Physics of Spectral Lines:**Demonstrate an understanding of how spectral lines form in stellar atmospheres and the knowledge that can be obtained from their study.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Theory of stellar atmospheres and the internal structure of stars.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter Contact Dept..

#### Prerequisites

- Instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Formation of Stable Stellar Structures:**Explain the physics that leads to the formation of a stable stellar structure.**Energy Transport Mechanisms:**Explain the modes of energy transport inside a star and its effect on structure and stability.**Energy Transport within Stars:**Explain the modes of energy transport inside a star and their effects on structure and stability.**Star Formation and Stellar Structure:**Explain the physics that leads to the formation of a stable stellar structure.**Interior Material of Stars:**Explain the equations of state that describe the interior material of a star.**The Equation of State:**Explain the equations of state that describe the interior material of a star.**Change over Time:**Discuss how the preceding change over time.**Stellar Evolution:**Discuss how the preceding change over time.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Applications of tensor analysis, differential geometry, and differential forms to such topics as mechanics, optics, relativity, and fluid dynamics.

#### Outcomes

**Deepen understanding and skills:**Students will deepen understanding and skills as outlined in individualized contract between student and professor.**Demonstrate advanced level of knowledge:**Students will demonstrate an advanced level of knowledge in a chosen specialty area**Improve understanding of focused topic:**Students will improve their understanding of a focused topic through mentored inquiry and the completion of related writing or design activity

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Introductory group theory. Basic representation theory and developments, with applications to quantum mechanics and molecular and solid-state physics.

#### Outcomes

**Group Theory:**Solve elementary mathematical problems in groups, algebras, and their representations with applications to physics.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Advanced group theory. Space groups and lie groups with applications in solid-state physics (energy band representations, phase transitions, etc.), nuclear physics, and quantum field theory (particle classification schemes, etc.).

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 618.

#### Outcomes

**Deepen understanding and skills:**Students will deepen understanding and skills as outlined in individualized contract between student and professor.**Demonstrate advanced level of knowledge:**Students will demonstrate an advanced level of knowledge in a chosen specialty area**Improve understanding of focused topic:**Students will improve their understanding of a focused topic through mentored inquiry and the completion of related writing or design activity

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Review of special relativity and general relativity, with applications to modern astrophysics.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 451 or equivalent.

#### Outcomes

**Four Vectors:**Solve problems associated with special relativity using the four-vector formalism of Minkowski space.**Differential Geometry:**Use differential geometry to solve problems in general curvilinear coordinates and in curved spacetimes. Solve basic problems on Lorentzian manifolds using the tools of differential geometry.**General Relativity:**Use the Einstein equations to solve problems associated with the classical tests of general relativity.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Applications of general relativity to modern astrophysics, including gravitational collapse, black holes, cosmological models, gravitational waves, etc.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 625.

#### Outcomes

**Black Holes:**Solve problems associated with the physics of black holes.**Gravity Waves:**Solve problems associated with linearized general relativity and the production of gravitational radiation.**Big Bang Cosmology:**Solve problems associated with the standard model of Big Bang cosmology.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Astrophysics of the interstellar medium and galactic structure.

#### Prerequisites

- Instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**The Galactic Ecosystem:**Identify the five phases of the interstellar medium, the physics and chemistry that characterizes these different regions, and their interaction. Solve problems related to atomic and molecular spectroscopy, gas cooling, gas heating, gas-phase chemical reactions, and grain-surface chemistry.**Physical and Chemical Processes in the Interstellar Medium:**Demonstrate the ability to apply this knowledge to understand the importance of dust, PAHs, HII regions, PDRs, phases in the ISM, molecular clouds, shock waves and SN explosions.**Independent Study:**Write in standard journal format using LaTex, as evidenced by a term paper.**Verbal Skills and Comprehension:**Give a professional oral presentation**Learning to Work with Real Data:**Reduce and analyze actual observations.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Astrophysics of the interstellar medium and galactic structure.

#### Prerequisites

- Instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Astronomical Background:**Demonstrate their understanding of galactic positional astronomy.**Physical Properties of Stars I:**Display an understanding of the role of stellar populations in galactic structure.**Dummy:**Show that they are well acquainted with the basic properties of both open and globular clusters and their role in understanding galactic structure.**Physical Properties of Stars II:**Show that they are well acquainted with the basic properties of both open and globular clusters and their role in understanding galactic structure.**Physical Properties of the Interstellar Medium:**Demonstrate their understanding of the relationship between interstellar matter and galactic structure.**Galactic Kinematics and Dynamics:**Display a qualitative and quantitative understanding of stellar kinematics, galactic rotation and galactic dynamics.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Advanced electrostatics and magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves, relativistic electrodynamics, radiation theory, and interaction of matter with electromagnetic fields.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Even Yrs..

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 442 or equivalent.

#### Outcomes

**Static Fields:**Solve problems in macroscopic electrostatics and magnetostatics.**Time-dependent Fields:**Solve the time-independent Maxwell equations using standard mathematical techniques for boundary value problems.**Waves:**Solve the time-dependent Maxwell equations for elementary problems including the propagation of plane electromagnetic waves.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Advanced electrostatics and magnetostatics, Maxwell's equations and electromagnetic waves, relativistic electrodynamics, radiation theory, and interaction of matter with electromagnetic fields.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter Odd Yrs..

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 641.

#### Outcomes

**Radiation:**Solve problems associated with time-dependent, electromagnetically radiating systems.**Special Relativity:**Solve problems associated with the special theory of relativity and the classical dynamics of relativistic particles and fields.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Plasma equilibrium and dynamics using magnetohydrodynamic theory with application to fusion and astrophysical plasmas.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 545.

#### Outcomes

**Divergence, Gradient, Curl, and Fluids:**Be able to explain what the gradient, the directional derivative, divergence, and curl mean in fluid dynamics. Also be able to explain how these concepts are involved in cases of simple gas and fluid flow.**MHD Equations:**Be able to write down from memory the ideal MHD equations and be able to explain the physical meaning of the terms in these equations.**Equilbrium and Stability:**Demonstrate the ability to use the energy principle to predict whether MHD equilibria are stable or unstable.**Resistive Instabilities:**Be able to explain the physical origin of resistive instabilities in non-ideal MHD.**Applications:**Be able to explain the physical origins and properties of the MHD instabilities and waves that are involved in magnetic fusion plasmas and astrophysical plasmas.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, with applications.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Odd Yrs..

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 451 or equivalent.

#### Outcomes

**Fundamentals of Quantum Theory:**Describe the reasons for introducing quantum theory and spell out the connection between classical physics and quantum physics.**The Microscopic World:**Solve problems by applying the quantum formalism to microscopic physical systems.**Simple Stationary States:**Solve simple one-dimensional time-independent problems in wave mechanics using analytic solution techniques.**Approximation Methods:**Apply approximation methods to simple one-dimensional systems.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, with applications.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter Even Yrs..

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 451 or equivalent; Phscs 602.

#### Outcomes

**Quantum Angular Momentum:**Extend quantum theory to three dimensions using the machinery of angular momentum for systems with spherical symmetry.**Spinors:**Use the spinor formalism to describe physical spin and two-level systems.**Quantum Dynamics:**Compute the dynamical evolution of quantum systems and convert results between the different representations of quantum theory.**Coupled Systems:**Solve problems involving the coupling of independent quantum systems, including identical particles, and be able to give their quantum information content.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Analyzing and modeling electro-mechano-acoustic systems. Transducers, calibration, and acoustical measurements. Sound sources, arrays, coupling, radiation, and directivity. Duct acoustics and acoustic filters.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 561 or instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Electro-Mechano-Acoustic Systems:**Model and analyze electro-mechano-acoustic systems using various theoretical, numerical, and experimental tools.**System Modeling and Analysis:**Work independently and collaborate with others on problems involving system modeling and analysis, acoustical measurements, analogous circuits, source radiation, source coupling, arrays, the Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral theorem, self and mutual radiation impedance, transducers, duct acoustics, electro-mechano-acoustic filters, and energy-based acoustics.**Prepare for Research:**Develop skills and proficiencies in all of these areas and become aware of key resources for further study.**Prepare for a Career in Acoustics:**Become more effective researchers and designers for future work in academics or industry.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- General solutions of the wave equation with applications. Kirchhoff-Helmholtz integral theorem. Sound radiation from generalized sources. Attenuation of propagating waves. Acoustic reflection, absorption, and scattering. Enclosed sound fields. Room acoustics. Energy-based acoustics.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter Odd Yrs..

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 561 or instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Advanced Acoustical Anaylsis:**Use advanced theoretical, numerical, and experimental techniques to model and analyze acoustical elements in musical instruments, the human voice, room acoustics, and audio.**Propagation of Sound:**Explain and calculate the physical effects of acoustic reflections, absorption, scattering, diffusion, diffraction, and propagation losses.**Model Acoustics Enclosures:**Model the acoustical effects of apertures, horns, nonuniform waveguides, acoustic filters, etc. Model damped enclosed sound fields using eigenmode expansions, statistical formulations, and numerical methods.**Acoustical Treatments:**Model the physical properties of acoustical treatments and design treatments for custom applications.**Sound Reproduction:**Apply advanced tools to characterize and improve the performance of sound reproduction and reinforcement systems.**Prepare for Research:**Develop skills and proficiencies in all of these areas and become aware of key resources for further study.**Prepare for a Career:**Become more effective researchers and designers for future work in academics or industry.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Sound-structure interactions. Sound transmission through panels and sound-isolation techniques. Advanced passive and active techniques in sound and vibration control. Near-field acoustic holography.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter Even Yrs..

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 561 or instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Active Noise Control:**Demonstrate an understanding of physical principles associated with active noise control by applying those principles to analyze and assess potential active noise control solutions.**Structural Radiation:**Demonstrate an understanding of sound/structure interaction by successfully solving problems involving structural radiation.**Obtain and Analyze Acoustical Data:**Demonstrate ability to set up an active noise control system, obtain data, and properly analyze the data.**Writing:**Demonstrate good writing skills, as evidenced in the reports submitted.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Quantum description of light and interactions with matter. Nonlinear optics.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Contact Dept.; Winter Contact Dept.; Spring Contact Dept.; Summer Contact Department.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 452, 471; or equivalents.

#### Outcomes

**Light and Matter:**Use the quantized description of light to describe interactions of light with matter.**Lasers:**Compute phase matching and conversion efficiencies for lasers in nonlinear media.**Entangled States:**Describe down conversion and the resulting entangled photon states.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Physical characteristics of X-ray generation, optics, and experimental applications. Methods of X-ray imaging emphasized.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 452 or equivalent; Phscs 581 amd 602.

#### Outcomes

**Basic Concepts of X-Ray Physics:**Teach their fellow students or colleagues key concepts in the generation, interaction, manipulation, and use of VUV, EUV and x-rays in physics and astronomy.**Learn the X-Ray Literature:**Demonstrate the ability to read and utilize the contemporary literature of x-ray phenomena, including topical conferences.**X-Ray Research:**Collect, interpret and present VUV, EUV and/or x-ray research data to solve important problems in the student's research.

**Credit Hours:** 0.5

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter.

#### Outcomes

**Learning by Listening:**Attended scientific presentations in a variety of fields.

**Credit Hours:** 0.5

#### Description

- One or two research areas to be selected, with 20 hours of participation required each semester.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall; Winter; Spring; Summer.

#### Outcomes

**Path to Graduation:**List the steps they must take to graduate successfully and in a timely manner, list when those steps are required, and articulate what they must do to accomplish them.**Become Your Own Teacher:**Distinguish between the more teacher-driven approach common in undergraduate learning to the self-motivated approach necessary for graduate and professional success.**Ethics:**Discuss scientific ethics and give examples of the correct behavior in situations they will encounter as students and professionals.**Presentations:**Benchmark their presentation skills by giving a power point presentation on ethics.**Writing:**Benchmark their current writing skills by writing a paper on ethics.**Study List:**Complete their study lists by the first few weeks of the second semester.

**Credit Hours:** 0.5-6.0

#### Outcomes

**Research:**Demonstrate the ability to conduct productive research under the direction of a faculty mentor.

**Credit Hours:** 1.0-9.0

#### Outcomes

**Dummy:**Demonstrate progress toward the production of a thesis/dissertation. This can take the form of writing in their thesis/dissertation, producing a paper, or any other activity that is important and timely for their specific situation.**Write a Dissertation:**Demonstrate progress toward the production of a thesis/dissertation. This can take the form of writing in their thesis/dissertation, producing a paper, or any other activity that is important and timely for their specific situation.

#### 700-Level Courses

**Credit Hours:** 0.5-3.0

#### Description

- Recent and upcoming topics include chaos, thin films, phase transformations, amorphous solids, quantum optics, astronomy using nontraditional frequencies, and particle physics.

#### Prerequisites

- Instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Master Subject:**Demonstrate that they have achieved the learning outcomes of this variable-topics course.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Advanced treatment of classical mechanics, including Lagrange's and Hamilton's equations, rigid body motion, and canonical transformations.

#### Typically Offered

- Fall Even Yrs..

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 321 or equivalent; Phscs 601 and 602.

#### Outcomes

**Langrangian Mechanics:**Solve problems using the calculus of variations, including constraints. Solve problems using Lagrangian dynamics and generalized coordinates, including conserved quantities and forces of constraint.**Central Focus and Normal Modes:**Solve central force problems, including 2-body gravitation and perturbations to circular motion, problems involving coupled oscillators, and analyze for normal modes.**Relativity:**Solve problems in special relativity using its 4-vector formulation.**Hamiltonian Dynamics:**Solve dynamics problems using the Hamiltonian and canonical transformations. Also solve dynamics problems using Hamilton-Jacobi theory and action-angle variables, including adiabatic invariants and perturbation theory.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Astrophysics of galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and cosmology.

#### Prerequisites

- Instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**The Morphology and Distribution of Galaxies:**Identify and describe the morphology, population, color, spectral signature, and space distribution of every type of galaxy.**The Large Scale Structure of the Universe:**Use existing databases to map the large scale structure of the universe.**The Milky Way:**Apply their understanding of the morphology of the Milky Way including dark matter to all galaxy types.**The AGN Standard Model:**Present the standard model of AGN and explain how it accounts for what is observed in galaxy nuclei.**Learning How to do Research:**Conduct an in-depth literature search on one aspect of the course material of their choosing and present the results in a paper.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Astrophysics of galaxies, active galactic nuclei, and cosmology.

#### Prerequisites

- Instructor's consent.

#### Outcomes

**Newtonian and Modern Cosmology:**Derive a universe model based on Newtonian cosmology and modify this to account for relativistic effects.**Gravitation and Cosmological Models:**Apply the Einstein equations to derive Freidmann's equation and from there set up and explore basic models.**The Large Scale Structure of the Universe:**Correlate theory with observed data including object counts, color evolution, WMAP data, LyAlpha forests, etc.**The Physics of Dark Energy:**Use arguments from first principles and a review of the literature to explain the evidence for dark energy.**Research Projects:**Conduct an in-depth literature search on one aspect of the course material of their choosing and present the results in a paper.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Advanced thermodynamics, classical statistical mechanics, quantum statistics, and transport theory.

#### Typically Offered

- Winter Even Yrs..

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 601 and 651.

#### Outcomes

**Ensemble Theory:**Demonstrate a working knowledge of the formalism of ensemble theory and solve problems related to thermodynamics.**Applications:**Demonstrate the ability to apply these techniques to systems with many degrees of freedom.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Plasma equilibrium and dynamics using a kinetic description, including collisionless damping and collisional transport.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 545, 642, 721.

#### Outcomes

**Diffusion and Transport:**Be able to describe the physical basis of transport in gases (thermal conduction, viscosity, and diffusion), in terms of the microscopic details of collisions between particles.**Boltzmann Equation:**Be able to explain the meaning of the Boltzmann transport equation and solve it in simple cases.**Fokker-Planck Equation:**Be able to explain the physical meaning of the Fokker-Planck transport equation, its relation to the Boltzmann equation, and its application to Coulomb scattering in plasmas.**Particle Simulation Methods:**Be able to computationally model both Boltzmann and Fokker-Planck transport phenomena using particle simulation techniques.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Topics in relativistic quantum mechanics, including quantum field theory.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 652.

#### Outcomes

**Lorentz Group:**Demonstrate a working knowledge of the Lorentz group and symmetry applications to particle physics.**Relativistic Wave Equations:**Analyze and solve relativistic wave equations for simple problems.**Quantization of Fields:**Demonstrate a working knowledge of the quantization of free fields.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Topics in relativistic quantum mechanics, including quantum field theory.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 652.

#### Outcomes

**Field Theory Problems:**Demonstrate the ability to solve problems with free quantized fields.**Perturbation Theory and Feynman Diagrams:**Demonstrate the ability to solve problems with interacting quantized fields using perturbation methods and Feynman diagrams.**Path Integral Methods:**Demonstrate the ability to use path integral methods in field theory.**Fundamental Interactions:**Apply these techniques to fundamental interactions.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Quantum theory of solids, emphasizing the unifying principles of symmetry, energy-band theory, dynamics of electrons and of periodic lattices, and cooperative phenomena.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 581, 651.

#### Outcomes

**Crystal Structure:**Describe crystal structures in both direct and reciprocal space by identifying the primitive unit cell, atomic basis, reciprocal unit cell, and first Brillouin zone.**Groups and Symmetry:**Identify crystal symmetries and their group theoretical relationships and apply them to descriptions of physical and properties such as phonon spectra, electronic bond structures, other excitation phenomena, and Fermi surfaces.**Calculate Basic Properties:**Calculate basic electronic and phononic properties of materials using both classical and quantum mechanical models.

**Credit Hours:** 3.0

#### Description

- Quantum theory of solids, emphasizing the unifying principles of symmetry, energy-band theory, dynamics of electrons and of periodic lattices, and cooperative phenomena.

#### Prerequisites

- Phscs 581, 651.

#### Outcomes

**Electrons and Phonons:**Calculate basic electronic and phononic properties of materials using both classical and quantum mechanical models.**Interacting Electrons:**Use interacting electron models to account for common quasi-particle phenomena.**Magnetic Properties:**Describe well-known interaction models that exhibit magnetic behaviors and apply them in simple cases.**Computational Methods:**Explain common computational methods that go beyond the independent electron model.

**Credit Hours:** 1.0-3.0

#### Description

- Focused readings and student presentations based on these readings.

#### Prerequisites

- Departmental approval.

#### Outcomes

**Literature Search:**Compile a comprehensive list of relevant literature that pertains to their discipline and/or their research project.**Read to Understand:**Read scientific papers in a way that produces an appropriate understanding of their important points.